Unless you have an allergic reaction after eating cantaloupe, you will not have to worry about it getting you sick. Certain people either have allergies or sensitive stomachs that can lead to gastrointestinal problems after eating this food, but for most people there is no danger whatsoever.
Since there is such a high water content in cantaloupe, it has been known to cause gas and in some rare cases diarrhea as well as upset stomach for some. You can avoid getting sick from cantaloupe by refrigerating it as soon as you get it from the supermarket. This way you will be able to reduce the chances of getting sick after eating it due to dangerous microorganisms.